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Design Development of Friction Stir Welding 
By Mohammad Aftab Azam [2018]

Friction Stir Welding (FSW) is relatively a new joining process produces no fumes, uses no filler material, it is environmental friendly and can join several metals and alloys such as aluminum, copper, magnesium, zinc, steel. It uses a cylindrical shouldered tool with a profiled probe rotated and slowly plunged into the weld joint between two metal pieces of sheet or plate that are to be welded together. Frictional heat is generated between the tool and the material causing the work piece to soften without reaching the melting point and then mechanically intermixes the two pieces of metal at the place of the joint further softened metal due to the elevated temperature is joined using mechanical pressure applied by the tool. This leaves a solid phase bond between the two pieces. Because melting does not occur and joining takes place below the melting point of the material, a high-quality weld is produced. This characteristic greatly reduces the ill effects of high heat in-put including distortion and solidification defects. FSW sometimes produces a weld that is stronger than the base material.
During my working as an Assistant Professor in DIT University Dehradun I have developed this machine using only the in-house manufacturing facilities. The conceptualization of its working, designing setup has been done solely myself. I have tested the performance of the machine and the joint strength which we found up to the industry standard.

Specification of the Friction Stir Welding Machine

Electric Motor

Material compatibility

Thickness of joint

Tool rotational speed up to

Tool angle of tilt

Welding speed

Tool thrust mechanism

Maximum Tool thrust

1 HP / single phase /150 rpm

Aluminum alloy

2mm to 6mm

500-3000 rpm

0-10 from the vertical

100 mm/min

Mechanical

10 kN

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